Client-initiated HIV testing differs between men and women in Brazil
C. Santos Barros1,2, E.M. Zucchi1,2, I. Franca-Junior2,3
1Faculdade de Saude Pública - USP, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Nepaids - USP, São Paulo, Brazil, 3School of Public Health - USP, Dept of Maternal and Child Health, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Background: In Brazil, the prevalence of HIV testing has been increasing in the last years and presenting differences regarding gender, socio-demographic, sexual and living characteristics. We aimed to estimate the factors associated with client-initiated HIV testing.
Methods: A household survey was conducted with 5,040 individuals (2,298 males and 2,742 females) aged between 16 and 65 years, representative of Brazilian urban population, in 2005. Associations between performing a client-initiated HIV testing and socio-demographic, sexual and HIV/AIDS knowledge-related characteristics were estimated. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated by multiple logistic model. Variables with p< 0.05 and confounders were kept in the final model.
Results: Out of 33% who performed the test, 9.2% were client-initiated (5% males; 4.2% females). Male testing was associated with: age 26-45 years, with higher magnitude for 26-35 years (OR=2.1); higher schooling (OR=12.9); perceiving the city as having medium-high risk for HIV infection (OR=1.7); knowing someone with AIDS (OR=1.8); considering AIDS treatment improves the quality of life (OR=2.2). Higher prevalence of female testing was associated with being aged 16-45 years, with higher magnitude for 26-35 years (OR=6.3); knowing someone with AIDS (OR=1.8); knowing where the test is performed (OR=4.5); first sexual intercourse after the age of 15 years (OR=1.5); and having ever used condom (OR=2.6).
Conclusions: Age and knowing someone with AIDS were common factors across gender for client-initiated HIV testing. However, men and women differ in regard to HIV testing determinants: the stronger environmental perception of the disease in the place of living reinforces client-initiated HIV testing among men. On the other hand, sexual experiences are more determinant for voluntary testing among women.
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