Temporal trends and molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1990 to 2002
V. Pimentel1, M. Morgado1, M. Guimarães2, E. Castilho3, V. Veloso4, M.L. Guimarães1
1Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 3Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 4Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Background: HIV-1 molecular epidemiology studies carried out in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have identified the occurrence of subtypes B, F1, the B” variant of subtype B and BF1 recombinants. The present study tries to correlate HIV-1 subtypes to exposure categories and to trace the temporal dynamics of the subtypes from 1990-2002 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Methods: The HIV-1 proviral DNA of heterossexual males (HET) and of men who have sex with men (MSM) [bisexuals (BIS) 1990-1992; all categories 1998-2002] individuals were extracted. The env-gp120 region was amplified. The products were sequenced, manually edited and aligned according to reference sequences of the distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to determine the viral subtype for this genomic region (MEGA 4.0). In order to verify to the correlation between HIV subtypes and exposure categories, statistical analyses were performed.
Results: Phylogenetic analysis of the env-gp120 region was carried out in the 112 HIV-1 samples from the period of 1990-1992, 41% of whom declared themselves HET (71,4% subtype B, 20,4%B” and 8,2%F1) and 59% as BIS (42,6% subtype B, 45,6%B” and 11,8%F1). From the 43 HIV-1 samples from 1998-2002, 45,5% declared to be HET (60%B, 15%B”, 25%F1) and 54,5% MSM (62,5%B, 33,3%B”, 4,2%F1). A strong correlation was verified among subtype B and HET (p=0,0013) and the B” variant with the BIS group (p=0,0101) from 1990-1992. Similar results were observed for samples collected in the period of 1998-2002, with a statistically significant correlation between the MSM group and B” variant (p=0,0016). A clear decline (10%), but not statistically significant was verified along time of the B” variant in male individuals.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the introduction of the B” variant in the Rio Janeiro was possibly related to the BIS group. A temporal trend suggests a reduction of B” variant transmission in males.
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