Prevalence of syphilis, HBV and HIV among pregnant women of six Brazilian capitals
D. Ribeiro1, M. Barbosa2, V. Pinto2, A. Benzaken3, E. Galban4, E. Oliveira2, F. Moherdaui2
1Ministry of Health, STD/Aids/Hepatitis, Brasília, Brazil, 2Ministry of Health, Brasilia, Brazil, 3FUAM and SBDST/AM, Manaus, Brazil, 4Universidad Calixto, Havana, Cuba
Background: To estimate the prevalence of syphilis, hepatitis B and HIV among pregnant women and their association with socioeconomic and demographic variables.
Methods: A multicentric study, including pregnant women in primary health care in six capitals. Blood samples were examined, for: syphilis (RPR and ELISA), HBV (ELISA Hepanostika HBsAg), HIV (ELISA GENSCREEN HIV-1 2 and Western Blot). Sociodemographic, sexual and obstetric data were obtained through specific questionnaires. Odds ratio (OR), fisher´s exact test and chi-square were used for statistical analysis.
Results: 3303 women were enrolled, mean age of 23.8 years (± 6.9). The prevalence rates were: syphilis 2.6%, HBV 0.9% and HIV 0.5%. More than 90% of pregnant women with syphilis presented a latent infection. Risk of being infected with syphilis was eight times higher among pregnant women with more than one sexual partner in the previous year (OR 8.49, 95% CI 5.35-13.5). Other factors significantly associated with syphilis were: older than 40 years (OR 4.63, 95% CI 1.99-10.40), lower education (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.17-3.54), history of genital ulcers (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.45-6.28) and sexual partner with genital ulcer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.13-11.27). The highest prevalence of Hepatitis B were associated to higher education level, among the variables there is an increased risk for pregnant women living in stable relationships (OR 7.36, 95% CI 1.05-147.99). Among pregnant women who had sexual partners living with HIV/AIDS have higher prevalence of HIV (4.4%) compared to those who had no history (0.2%) (OR 2.37 95% CI 1.68 - 3.34) and, moreover, also with low education (OR 24.19, 95% CI 7.21-81.06).
Conclusions: Syphilis prevalence rates was the highest of injuries, as these pregnant women were asymptomatic for STD, maybe playing a role in maternal and infant morbidity, hence the intensification of actions at the prenatal care and surveillance to these groups in health care services.
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