HIV infection on immune system: implications by R0 epidemic estimative
M. Rossi1, L.F. Lopez2
1School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Legal Medicine, Medical Ethics, Health and Labour Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil, 2University of São Paulo, Legal Medicine, Medical Ethics, Health and Labour Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
Background: The development of many antiretroviral therapies to combat HIV infection has resulted in a dramatic decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with AIDS. Researchers perform mathematical models for simulations of HIV infection spreading into the human body, which allows study in silico the effect of these therapies and hypothetical anti-HIV vaccines.
Methods: It was derived a Basic Reproduction Number (R0) formulation, through the Next Generation Matrix methodology, from a previous ordinary differential equation model, considering the viral dynamics on immune system represented by macrophages, dendritic cells (DC), lymphocytes TCD4 and CTL.
Results: A R0 equation was performed and this index shows how the viral proliferation and disease establishment by infected T cells density and macrophage and DC antigen presenting process lead to immune exhaustion and AIDS. This analysis showed that HIV uses these cellular sets to spread infection under a contact rate among infected macrophages (ξ) and DC (φ). After, these two populations die by rates ((µf+α') and µdc). Efficiency from infectious contact done by HIV on Tcells by “infectious synapse” (terms in parenthesis into equations) is other important parameter, since as more viruses penetrate into cells, more lymphocyte TCD4 become infected, leading to depletion of immune system.
Conclusions: To viral infection progress these R0 > 1, demonstrating sufficient condition to establishment of viral proliferation and the evolution of disease. Then, the results show that macrophage and DC populations, as well as antigen presenting process, are a set of possible therapeutic targets to HIV/AIDS vaccination schemes.
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