Pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS: factors associated with adherence to treatment in a health service in Porto Alegre, Brazil
E.R. Faria1, T.R. Gonçalves1, F.T. Carvalho1, B.R. Santos2, M.C. Ramos3, R.C.S. Lopes1, C.A. Piccinini1
1Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, Serviço de Infectologia, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 3Centro de Estudos de Aids/DST do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Background: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy is crucial to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. This study aimed to describe the adherence of pregnant women living with HIV/Aids to antiretroviral therapy and to investigate adherence's predictors.
Methods: Eighty-seven pregnant women attending prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services in Porto Alegre/Brazil took part in the study. Data were collected using interviews about sociodemografic characteristics and adherence to treatment, and viral load tests. Adherence was measured by viral load, evaluated as satisfactory when less than 1.000 copies per milliliter. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with adherence.
Results: The participants ranged 18 to 43 years (M= 28,2), had mean educational level of 7,5 years (SD=3,24), 76% had a partner, and 55% did not have a job. About the serostatus, 75% reported they knew their HIV status before the current pregnancy, and 63% had Aids. All women were asymptomatic and were taking antiretroviral medications to prevent mother-to-child transmission. However, 25,5% interrupted ART at least once during the current pregnancy. Bivariate analyses showed a positive and significant relationship among adherence and the following variables: educational level, marital status, history of drug use, previous HIV treatment, week of pregnancy at the first antenatal visit and at the beginning of prophylactic ART, total number of antenatal visits, disclosure the HIV status to father's baby and to women´s family. Logistic regression revealed that having a partner and the number of antenatal visits were significant adherence predictors among pregnant women.
Conclusions: These findings indicate the importance of antenatal care for HIV women and suggest that the partner should also be involved in this process.
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