High rates of vitamin D deficiency among HIV-infected and at-risk women in the United States
Presented by Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi (United States).
O.M. Adeyemi1, D. Agniel1, A. French1, K. Weber1, P.C. Tien2, M. Glesby3, E. Golub4, D. Merenstein5, A. Sharma6, M.C. Villacres7, M. Cohen1, WIHS study group
1CORE Center, Cook County Hospital, Chicago, United States, 2University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, United States, 3Cornell Weil Medical College, New York, United States, 4John Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, United States, 5Georgetown University, Washington, United States, 6New York University School of Medicine, New York, United States, 7University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in US adults and has been associated with adverse health outcomes. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of low vitamin D levels in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).
Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 1650 (1173HIV+, 477 HIV-) participants from the WIHS, a multi-site prospective study of women with and at risk for HIV. 25(OH)-Vitamin D was measured using the liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry method. Vitamin D was mean log transformed for the analysis and multivariable linear regression determined factors associated with vitamin D deficiency.
Results: Mean age was 43.7 years; 60% were African American (AA), 22% White and 14% Hispanic. Mean Vitamin D (SD) was 18 (12.5) ng/ml. Vitamin D deficiency (< 20ng/ml) was found in 63%; insufficiency (>20-< 30ng/ml) in 23%. In a multivariate linear model the following were associated with vitamin D levels, African American race -0.44 log (-0.53,-0.36 p< 0.001), Hispanic race -0.15 log(-0.27, -0.04, p=0.007), Age >40years 0.08*log (0.04,0.12, p< 0.001), Overweight/Obese BMI -0.09*log (-0.13,-0.05, p< 0.001) and WIHS sites; Los Angeles 0.14 log(0.03, 0.24, P=0.01), San Francisco -0.18 log (-0.30, -0.07 p=0.002) and Chicago 0.18 log(0.07, 0.30 p=0.001). (* for 10-pt increase in BMI and 10 year increase in age). Among HIV-infected, women, detectable HIVRNA was associated with lower Vitamin D levels; - 0.03 log
Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in US women with and at risk for HIV and was not associated with HIV status. Only 14% had sufficient levels and being African American was strongly associated with Vitamin D deficiency. The effect of Vitamin D replacement on a variety of HIV and non-HIV related health outcomes needs to be studied.
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