A rights-based model of HIV prevention for the transgendered: a meta analysis
USP, USP, Uruguay
Background: The transgendered are one of the most neglected and vulnerable groups in the face of HIV epidemic because of a lack of rights protection against social exclusion. The purpose of this study is to examine the application of sustainable human-rights principles for HIV prevention for the transgendered.
Method: A meta analysis of the policies related to the transgendered and HIV prevention in 24 countries (such as Canada, USA, Bolivia, Brazil, India, etc.) was conducted. The major themes of analysis are policies and laws on:
2. same-sex relationships;
3. gender identity expression (e.g., sex change and registration);
4 . decriminalization of commercial sex; and
5. access to health services.
Results: This meta-analysis shows that a human rights-based model of HIV prevention needs to center on inclusion. The key elements of an inclusive human rights model are justice, beneficence (empathy, and harm reduction, nonviolence), and interdependence. The justice principle is applied in equitable access to HIV medicine and related services (VCT); protection of the rights of same sex partners; decriminalization of commercial sex; and legalization of identity change registration. Beneficence, with the core ideas of harm reduction and empathy, is reflected in anti-discrimination and stigma reduction legislations and public education; specialized health services for the transgendered, e.g., sex change and psychological health; and employment rights. Interdependence refers to capacity building of the mainstream society and the transgendered (e.g., sex and gender education and increasing peer counseling and network-driven methods).
Conclusions: A meta-analysis of the legal stipulations on the rights of the transgendered of 24 countries showed that a human-rights-based model should focus on inclusion-related principles in justice, beneficence and interdependence in HIV prevention for the transgendered. Significance: This model allows us to generate a sustainable and comprehensive HIV prevention strategy.
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