highly active antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral opportunistic
infections related to HIV-infection, a gender study
L. Gaitan1, A. Ceballos-Salobreña2, R. Segura-Saint Gerons3
1Dental School National Autonomous University Mexic, Oral Pathology laboratory, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, 2Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Odontología, Granada, Spain, 3Universidad de Cordoba, Facultad de Medicina, Cordoba, Spain
Background: The epidemiological and clinical aspects of oral opportunistic infections related to HIV infection (OOI-HIV) have been influenced by the different antiretroviral treatments. It is unknown if this behavior is gender-related. Therefore the principal objective was to establish the behavior of oral opportunistic infections related to HIV infection in the different antiretroviral therapies-eras in regard to gender.
Methods: A data base of 1126 HIV+/AIDS patients (775 males; 351 females) was used. The patients were oral examined from January 1993 to December 2007. All of the patients were undergoing antiretroviral therapy (minimum 6 months) at oral examination. In relation to antiretroviral therapy used the cohort were divided in 3 eras: pre-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (pre-HAART) era (1993 to 1996); early-HAART era (1997 to 2003); and late-HAART era (2005 onwards). The prevalence of OOI-HIV in each era was established and the relative difference between pre-HAART era and late-HAART era was obtained. A lineal regression test was used with statistical purposes (s 0.05).
Results: From pre-HAART era to late-HAART era the Pseudomembranous candidiasis diminishes 86.9% (s 0.109) in males and 76.8% (s 0.06) in females. In the late-HAART era there were no cases of Hyperplastic candidiasis. On the other hand the prevalence of the Erythematous candidisis increased 14.7% in males and 7.9% in females. In regard to viral opportunistic infections, Herpes labialis diminishes 33.7% (s 0.015) in males and 32.7% (s 0.008) in females. There were no cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma in the late-HAART era. On the other hand Hairy leukoplakia increase 39.6% (s 0.01) in males and 139% in females (0.000).
Conclusions: The prevalence of oral opportunistic infections related to HIV-infection has been influenced by the different antiretroviral therapies-eras. The Erythematous Candidiasis and Hairy leukoplakia showed a behavior gender-dependent.
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